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The Internationalization of the Circumpolar North: Charting a Course for the 21st Century
by Oran R. Young
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  1. Gail Osherenko and Oran R. Young, The Age of the Arctic: Hot Conflicts and Cold Realities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, Ch. 2.
  2. Hugh Brody, The People's Land. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1975 and Mel Watkins ed., Dene Nation: The Colony Within. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977.

  3. Osherenko and Young, op. cit., Ch. 4.

  4. All three cases are analyzed at length in Oran R. Young and Gail Osherenko eds., Polar Politics: Creating International Environmental Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
  5. Simon Lyster, International Wildlife Law. Cambridge: Grotius Publishers, 1985, Ch. 3.
  6. Willy Ostreng, Politics in High Latitudes: The Svalbard Archipelago. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1978.
  7. Pål Prestrud and Ian Stirling, "The International Polar Bear Agreement and the Current Status of Polar Bear Conservation," Aquatic Mammals, 20 (1994), 113-124.
  8. On the distinction between institutions and organizations, see Oran R. Young, International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989, Ch. 2.
  9. David Scrivener, "Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic: From Strategy to Council," Security Policy Library No. 1, Oslo: The Norwegian Atlantic Committee, 1996.
  10. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report. Oslo: AMAP , 1997.
  11. Olav Schram Stokke and Ola Tunander eds., The Barents Region: Cooperation in Arctic Europe. London: Sage, 1994.
  12. David D. Caron, "The International Whaling Commission and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission: The Institutional Risks of Coercion in Consensual Structures," American Journal of International Law, 89 (1995), 154-174.
  13. Christopher C. Joyner, "Ice-Covered Regions in International Law," Natural Resources Journal, 31 (1991), 213-242. For a discussion of American-Canadian differences involving the treatment of ice-covered areas, see Christopher Kirkey, "Smoothing Troubled Waters: The 1988 Canada-United States Arctic Co-operation Agreement," International Journal, 50 (Spring 1995), 401-426.
  14. For an up-to-date account of the ATS see Christopher C. Joyner, Governing the Frozen Commons: The Antarctic Regime and Environmental Protection. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.
  15. Donald R. Rothwell, The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, Ch. 6.
  16. Oran R. Young, "Institutional Linkages in International Society: Polar Perspectives," Global Governance, 2 (January-April 1996), 1-23 an d Richard Herr, "Regime Formation and Regime Overlap: Living Resource Management in the Southern Ocean," unpublished manuscript, University of Tasmania, 1997.
  17. Oran R. Young, "Arctic Governance: Bringing the High Latitudes in from the Cold," International Environmental Affairs, 9 (Winter 1997), 54-68.
  18. Finn Lynge, Arctic Wars, Animal Rights, Endangered Peoples. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1992.
  19. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), "Strategic Plan for the Conservation of Arctic Biological Diversity," working group document dated September 1998.
  20. Terry Fenge, "POPs in the Arctic: Turning Science into Policy," Northern Perspectives, 25 (Winter 1998), 21-27.
  21. Steven B. Young, To the Arctic: An Introduction to the Far Northern World. New York: John Wiley, 1989.
  22. National Research Council, The Bering Sea Ecosystem. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996.
  23. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn eds., Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management in Northern Regions. Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1988.
  24. Oran R. Young, "Creating an Arctic Sustainable Development Strategy," First Stefansson Memorial Lecture, Stefansson Arctic Institute, Akureyri, Iceland, December 1998.
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The Internationalization of the Circumpolar North: Charting a Course for the 21st Century,
by Oran R. Young.
Copyright Stefansson Arctic Institute and individual authors ©2000
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